- Introduction: The Study of Modern Scottish History
- Land and Sea: The Environment
- The Demographic Factor
- Mythical Scotland
- Religion and Society to <i>c</i>.1900
- The Literary Tradition
- The Clearances and the Transformation of the Scottish Countryside
- A Global Diaspora
- The Renaissance
- Reformed and Godly Scotland?
- The ‘Rise’ of the State?
- Reappraising the Early Modern Economy, 1500–1650
- Scotland restored and reshaped: Politics and Religion, <i>c</i>.1660–1712
- The Early Modern Family
- The Seventeenth-Century Irish Connection
- New Perspectives on Pre-union Scotland
- Migrant Destinations, 1500–1750
- Union Historiographies
- Scottish Jacobitism in its International Context
- The Rise (and fall?) of the Scottish Enlightenment
- The Barbarous North? Criminality in Early Modern Scotland
- Industrialization and the Scottish People
- Scotland and the Eighteenth-Century Empire
- The Challenge of Radicalism to 1832
- The Scottish Cities
- Identity within the Union State, 1800–1900
- The Scottish Diaspora since 1815
- The Impact of the Victorian Empire
- The Great War
- The Interwar Crisis: The Failure of Extremism
- The Religious Factor
- Gender and Nationhood in Modern Scottish Historiography
- The Stateless Nation and the British State since 1918
- Challenging the Union
- A New Scotland? The Economy
- A New Scotland? Society and Culture
Abstract and Keywords
For its size, Scotland has a very diverse natural environment. Historically, there have also been major regional differences in landholding practices, industrial development, and popular and religious culture. All these produced a highly differentiated spatial demography; and this means that we always need to go below the national level if we are to fully understand Scottish population change and its implications for the people of Scotland. Scotland's first official census, in 1801, showed a national population of somewhat over 1.6 million, with figures for every civil parish. In spite of some problems with data collection, the results for most places are probably accurate for the civilian population to within a few per cent. It seems that, as in England and many other countries, opportunities for marriage were a major control over Scottish demographic change during this period. This article, which analyses Scotland's demographic history and looks at contrasting patterns of population change between 1801 and 2001, also discusses fertility, mortality, and migration in Scotland during the same period.
Michael Anderson, FRSE, FBA, Honorary Professorial Fellow, School of History, Classics and Archaeology, University of Edinburgh
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