- The Oxford Handbook of Postwar European History
- List of Illustrations
- List of Abbreviations
- List of Contributors
- List of Contributors
- Editor's Introduction: Postwar Europe as History
- Corporatism and the Social Democratic Moment: The Postwar Settlement, 1945–1973
- Interwar, War, Postwar: Was there a Zero Hour in 1945?
- East, West, and the Return of ‘Central’: Borders Drawn and Redrawn
- Spectres of Europe: Europe's Past, Present, and Future
- Europe and its Others: Is there a European Identity?
- Ethnic Cleansing
- Responding to ‘Order Without Life’? Living Under Communism
- The Spectre of Americanization: Western Europe in the American Century
- Immigration and Asylum: Challenges to European Identities and Citizenship
- Gendering Europe, Europeanizing Gender: The Politics of Difference in a Global Era
- 1968: Europe in Technicolour
- Making Postwar Communism
- Europe's Cold War
- The Western European Welfare State Beyond Christian and Social Democratic Ideology
- The Truth About Friendship Treaties: Behind The Iron Curtain
- A Continent Bristling With Arms: Continuity and Change In Western European Security Policies After the Second World War
- <i>‘Les Trente Glorieuses’</i>: From the Marshall Plan to the Oil Crisis
- European Integration: The Rescue of the Nation State?
- A Restructured Economy: From the Oil Crisis to the Financial Crisis, 1973–2009
- Veblen Redivivus: Leisure and Excessin Europe
- ‘Gentlemen, you are Mad!’: Mutual Assured Destruction and Cold War Culture
- What was National Stalinism?
- Colonial Fantasies Shattered
- After the Fear was Over? What Came After Dictatorships in Spain, Greece, and Portugal
- What Comes After Communism?
- Brothers, Strangers and Enemies: Ethno-Nationalism and the Demise of Communist Yugoslavia
- The Countryside: Towards a Theme Park?
- Heritage and the Reconceptualization of the Postwar European City
- The Postcolonial Condition
- Postwar Art, Architecture, and Design
- Science and Technology in Postwar Europe
- Images of Europe, European Images: Postwar European Cinema and Television Culture
- Intellectuals and Nazism
- The Great Patriotic War in Soviet and Post-Soviet Collective Memory
- Memory Wars in the ‘New Europe’
Abstract and Keywords
One can define ethnic cleansing as a mass-scale, violent, and permanent removal of an ethnically defined group from one territory to a perceived external homeland. Deportations within a state were special in this regard because there was no vision of an external territory to which the cleansed population would be sent. It still needs to be explored why some states treated deported minorities worse than other states treated their supposed external enemies. This article examines the origins and three preconditions of ethnic cleansing: modern nationalism, the concept of the modern nation-state, and the development of population policy. It also discusses four major periods of ethnic cleansing: 1912–1925, ethnic cleansing under the hegemony of Nazi Germany (1938–1944), ethnic cleansing and the postwar order in Europe (1944–1948), and ethnic cleansing in Yugoslavia (1991–1995).
Philipp Ther is Professor of Central European History at the University of Vienna. He has published several books about nationalism, violence, and ethnic cleansing. Among them are Deutsche und polnische Vertriebene. Gesellschaft und Vertriebenenpolitik in der SBZ/DDR und in Polen 1945–1956 (1998), Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-Central Europe 1944–1948 (ed. with Ana Siljak, 2001), Nationalitätenkonflikte im 20. Jahrhundert: Ursachen von inter-ethnischer Gewalt im Vergleich (ed. with Holm Sundhaussen, 2001), and Die dunkle Seite der Nationalstaaten: Ethnische Säuberungen im modernen Europa (2011). His other, more pleasant field of interest, is cultural history, especially the history of music and society.
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