- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- Notes on the Contributors
- Business History and History
- Economic Theory and Business History
- Business History and Economic Development
- Business History and Management Studie
- The Historical Alternatives Approac
- Big Business
- Family Business
- Industrial Districts and Regional Clusters
- Business Groups and Interfirm Networks
- Business Interest Associations
- Banking and Finance
- Technology and Innovation
- Design and Engineering
- Marketing and Distribution
- The Management of Labor and Human Resource
- Accounting, Information, and Communication Systems
- Corporate Governance
- Business And The State
- Skill Formation And Training
- Business Education
- Business Culture
Abstract and Keywords
The origins of “modern” marketing are connected to increase in real wages, the choices generated by disposable incomes, transport and communication systems, the building of national markets, and urbanization. If the economic and social opportunities were to be fulfilled, businesses needed to innovate products and systems, and they succeeded with the manufacturing and distribution of standardized goods. The assumption of the marketing orientation, which started with the wishes of consumers, was a response by many leading enterprises to the greater individual spending power of the consumer. In several important cases, it brought the increasing segmentation of formerly homogenous markets. Market research assisted the process of product development, and the use of psychological analysis challenged the simplicities of “narrow” economics.
Robert Fitzgerald is Reader in Business History and International Management at Royal Holloway, University of London, UK. He has a Ph.D. from the University of London. He is the author of books and numerous journal articles on labor management, business organization, and comparative and international business, as well as marketing.
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