- The Task of World History
- Theories of World History since the Enlightenment
- World Environmental History
- Nomadic pastoralism
- States, State Transformation, and War
- Religions and World History
- Technology, Engineering, and Science
- Advanced Agriculture
- Trade across Eurasia to about 1750
- Biological Exchanges in World History
- Cultural Exchanges in World History
- Pre-modern Empires
- Modern Imperialism
- East Asia and Central Eurasia
- South Asia and Southeast Asia
- The Middle East in World History
- Africa in World History: The Long, Long View
- Europe and Russia in World History
- Mediterranean History
- The Americas, 1450–2000
- The Atlantic Ocean Basin
- Oceania and Australasia
- The pacific Ocean Basin to 1850
Abstract and Keywords
This article describes the link between history and various geographies. History and geography were once commonly regarded as sibling disciplines. Despite their long-recognized affinity, history and geography increasingly parted ways as academic professionalization and specialization strengthened during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Historians grew skeptical of the hard linkages that geographers of the time posited between historical development and the natural landscape. They also increasingly focused on national history, regarding the territories of nation-states as holistic totalities requiring little geographical attention. Geographers, for their part, disengaged from historical concerns as they turned increasingly to theory and method. In the latter decades of the twentieth century, the two disciplines began to shown some signs of reconvergence. Most geographers now recognize the need for historical contextualization, just as many historians have rediscovered the importance of spatial relations while discovering the utility of geographical methods.
Martin W. Lewis is Senior Lecturer in International History at Stanford University.
Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.
If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.