Abstract and Keywords
This article considers Josephson junction barriers, focusing on barriers made from insulators, metals, semiconductors, magnets, and nanowires. The main characteristic of Josephson junctions is the local reduction or even suppression of the critical current in the barrier. These barriers affect the static and dynamics properties of Josephson junctions, including coupling strength, ground state, phase damping, and tunability of the critical current. The article first provides an overview of the fundamental physics of Josephson junctions, with particular emphasis on the Josephson effect, before describing the properties of two coupled superconductors. It then discusses tunnel barriers, metallic barriers, semiconducting barriers, and magnetic barriers.
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