- Oxford Library of Psychology
- The Oxford Handbook of Military Psychology
- Oxford Library of Psychology
- About the Editors
- The Handbook of Military Psychology: An Introduction
- Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: Why? And Why Now?
- Combat-Related Stress Reactions Among U.S. Veterans of Wartime Service
- Physical Injuries; Psychological Treatment
- Operational Psychology: Foundation, Applications, and Issues
- Ethics, Human Rights, and Interrogations: The Position of the American Psychological Association
- In Search of Psychological Explanations of Terrorism
- Crime on the Battlefield: Military Fate or Individual Choice?
- What Do Commanders Really Want to Know?: U.S. Army Human Terrain System Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan
- An International Perspective on Military Psychology
- Military Selection and Classification in the United States
- Assessing Psychological Suitability for High-Risk Military Jobs
- Leadership in Dangerous Contexts: A Team-Focused, Replenishment-of-Resources Approach
- Swift Trust in Ad Hoc Military Organizations: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives
- Leader Development in a Natural Context
- Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Factors in Soldier Performance
- Characteristics of Sense-Making in Combat
- Military Engineering Psychology: Setting the Pace for Exceptional Performance
- Psychology’s Contribution to Military Training
- The Role of Sleep in the Military: Implications for Training and Operational Effectiveness
- Teams in the Military: A Review and Emerging Challenges
- Boredom: Groundhog Day as Metaphor for Iraq
- Minorities in the Military
- Gay Service Personnel in the U.S. Military: History, Progress, and a Way Forward
- Military Families in an Era of Persistent Conflict
- What They Deserve: Quality of Life in the U.S. Military
- Military Psychology: Closing Observations and a Look Forward
Abstract and Keywords
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals have served honorably throughout the history of the U.S. military. However, gay individuals have not been allowed to serve openly because U.S. military policies and laws have prohibited them from being open and honest about their sexual orientation. On December 22, 2010, President Barack Obama signed a law removing all restrictions on gays in the military and set out a process by which to enable openly gay individuals to enter and remain in the U.S. military. This chapter is intended to contribute to ongoing discussions related to the challenges and opportunities associated with the participation and inclusion of openly gay service personnel within the U.S. military. It provides a brief historical review of military policies and laws concerning the treatment of gay service personnel in the U.S. military. It reviews empirical research related to sexual orientation and military service and outlines a theory of individual, occupational-organizational, and societal factors influencing the participation and inclusion of openly gay service personnel. Lastly, it discusses theoretical and methodological implications for future research in this area.
Armando X. Estrada, Department of Psychology, Washington State University.
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