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date: 26 April 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This article discusses community-level influences on offending and crime. It shows how the general ecological model can help understand the spatial distributions of patterns of urban activity and unconventional behaviors including crime and delinquency. It then identifies the supporting causal explanations of neighborhood effects and studies the emerging research on reciprocal causation and the role of crime in the stratification of neighborhoods. The last section of the article comments on the lessons learned and the challenges that needs to be faced for further development in the field.

Keywords: community-level influences, general ecological model, unconventional behaviors, spatial distributions, neighborhood effects, reciprocal causation, neighborhood stratification

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