- List of Contributors
- African American Citizenship
- An American Conundrum: Race, Sociology, And The African American Road To Citizenship
- Race and the Limits of American Democracy: African Americans from the Fall of Reconstruction to the Rise of the Ghetto
- The Strange Career Of Racial Science, Racial Categories, And African American Identity
- Race-Conscious Color Blindness: World War II, <i>Brown v. Board of Education</i>, and the Strange Persistence of the One-Drop Rule
- From Color Caste to Color Blind, Part I: Racial Attitudes in the United States during World War II, 1939–1945
- From Color Caste to Color Blind, Part II: Racial Attitudes during the Civil Rights and Black Power Eras, 1946–1975
- From Color Caste to Color Blind, Part III: Contemporary Era Racial Attitudes, 1976–2004
- From Slave to Citizen: Overview of the Evolution of African American Economic Status
- Reconstruction: The Foundations of Economic Citizenship
- The Economy and the Black Citizen, 1900 to World War II
- The Expansion of Economic Rights since World War II
- Government Policy and the Poor
- African American Politics and Citizenship, 1865–Present: An Overview
- The Black Public Sphere and Black Civil Society
- Blacks and the Racialized State
- War and African American Citizenship, 1865–1965: The Role of Military Service
- From the Civil Rights Movement to the Present
- African American Women: Intersectionality in Politics
- The United States Constitution and the Struggle for African American Citizenship: An Overview
- African American Legal Status from Reconstruction Law to the Nadir of Jim Crow: 1865–1919
- African American Legal Status from the Harlem Renaissance through World War II
- Law from the Rise of the Civil Rights Movement to the Present
- Education and the Quest for African American Citizenship: An Overview
- Emancipation and Reconstruction: African American Education, 1865–1919
- From the “New Negro” to Civil Rights: African American Education, 1919–1945
- Education from Civil Rights through Black Power: 1945–1975
- From Retrenchment to Renewal: African American Education, 1975–Present
- The African American Psyche, 1865–Present: An Overview
- Predicaments, Coping, and Resistance: Social and Personal Identities among African Americans
- Contemporary Black Identities and Personalities
- The Rise and Fall of Race Psychology in the Study of African Americans
- Black Personality in the Integrationist Era
- The Racism of Intelligence: How Mental Testing Practices Have Constituted an Institutionalized Form of Group Domination
Abstract and Keywords
There are multiple possible views of the Black American psyche. But in the science that focuses on the psyche, the science of psychology, there has really been only variants of one view: the Black psyche is “damaged” to use Daryl Scott's term, in deficit, dominated by self-hatred, infected with self-destructive values and habits of mind, a double consciousness divided against itself, replete with cognitive, linguistic, and emotional deficiencies, and so on. This narrowness of perspective, as reflected in this article, is not restricted to psychology. It is a long evolved cultural framework. Much of the research that has focused squarely on blacks' experiences has examined the potential psychological toll that membership in a socially devalued group may take on black Americans. Although this research is undoubtedly important and informative, it is a perspective that is overrepresented compared with work examining the resilience and strength of blacks and members of other socially devalued groups in the face of group-level devaluation.
Claude Steele is Dean of Stanford University School of Education. He was formerly Provost of the University and Professor of Psychology at Columbia University.
Jennifer Richeson is Professor of Psychology and a Faculty Fellow at the Institute for Policy Research at Northwestern University.
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