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date: 22 April 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The history of research in neurolinguistics has provided an evolving picture of the neural basis of language. This chapter provides a brief review of its historical roots, its theoretical underpinnings that still guide much of current research, what has been learned, and what challenges and questions remain for the future. The field has progressed from a singular focus on the aphasias to the application of a broader palette of methodologies that have revolutionized our ability to map structural and functional properties of the brain. An earlier focus on localization of function has advanced to a recognition that components of the grammar are broadly tuned, recruiting neural systems rather than functionally encapsulated neural regions. Today’s neurolinguistics research promises to provide a deeper understanding of language—its representations, organization, and processes—and the neural systems underlying it—their structure, connections, computations, and intersection with other cognitive domains.

Keywords: aphasia, computational model, neurolinguistics, lesion-symptom mapping, modality, modularity, network, neuroimaging, neuropsychology, technology

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