- The Oxford Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice
- The Oxford Handbook of Environmental Criminology
- List of Contributors
- Environmental Criminology: Scope, History, and State of the Art
- Social Spatial Influences
- How Do We Get to Causal Clarity on Physical Environment-Crime Dynamics?
- The Individual Perspective
- Do We Really Need Collective Social Process to Understand Why Crime Occurs and Offenders Commit Crime?
- The Importance of High Offender Neighborhoods within Environmental Criminology
- Four Images of the Delinquency Area
- Evaluating Theories of Environmental Criminology: Strengths and Weaknesses
- Deciding on the “Appropriate” Unit of Analysis: Practical Considerations in Environmental Criminology
- GIS and Spatial Analysis
- The Role of Innovative Data Collection Methods in Advancing Criminological Understanding
- Advances in Visualization for Theory Testing in Environmental Criminology
- Victimization Surveys in Environmental Criminology
- Systematic Social Observation
- Computer Simulations: Agent-Focused Environmental Criminology
- Research on Neighborhoods in European Cities
- Testing Theories of Social Disorganization in Nigeria
- Gated Communities and Crime in the United States
- Egohoods: Capturing Change in Spatial Crime Patterns
- Signal Crimes, Social Reactions, and the Future of Environmental Criminology
- Built Environment, Land Use, and Crime
- Macro-Level Generators of Crime, Including Parks, Stadiums, and Transit Stations
- Does Crime Impact Real Estate Prices?: An Assessment of Accessibility and Location
- Street Networks and Crime
- Crime Concentrations at Places
- Studying Situational Effects of Setting Characteristics: Research Examples from the Study of Peers, Activities, and Neighborhoods
- Place Management
- Crime Concentrations: Hot Dots, Hotspots, and Hot Flushes
- Time and Opportunity
- Mobility and Location Choice of Offenders
- What Have We Learned from Environmental Criminology for the Prevention of Crime?
- Riots, Space, and Place
- Geoprofiling Terrorism
- Child Sexual Abuse and Opportunity
- Gangs and Space
- Organized Crime and Places
- Cybercrime and Place: Applying Environmental Criminology to Crimes in Cyberspace
- Maritime Piracy
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter begins by sketching out where the practice of policing may be heading, and what we need to do differently, so as to arrive at a roughly envisioned future ethically and in good order. A police presence at all places at all times being impossible, the practical issue is where and when to place officers or their technological surrogates. It then considers optimized distribution of effort and resource, given the central aim of fairness in the distribution of crime harm. It illustrates current levels of inequality of victimization, and claim that reducing the current concentration, at individual and area levels, should be an explicit underpinning vision for policing. It briefly reviews the relevant literature and its implications.
Dainis Ignatans is a Lecturer in Criminology at the University of Huddersfield. His current research interests revolve around statistical examination of repeat victimization patterns as well as exploration of crime committed against, by, and within diverse immigrant communities.
Ken Pease is a chartered forensic psychologist and Visiting Professor of Crime Science at the Jill Dando Institute, University College London, and at Loughborough University. His current interests are the use of Bayesian statistics in evaluating police work, and the renewed relevance of personal construct theory in the digital age.
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