- The Oxford Handbook of Language and Society
- List of Contributors
- Introduction—Language and Society: A Critical Poststructuralist Perspective
- Language and Society: Historical Overview and the Emergence of a Field of Study
- Language, Imperialism, and the Modern Nation-State System: Implications for Language Rights
- Language and Political Economy
- Language and Power
- Language Ideologies
- Language Policy and Local Practices
- Language, Migration, Diaspora: Challenging the Big Battalions of Groupism
- Bilingualism, Multilingualism, Globalization, and Superdiversity: Toward Sociolinguistic Repertoires
- Diglossia and Beyond
- Language Shift and Sustainability: Critical Discourses and Beyond
- Discourses of Endangerment from Mother Tongues to Machine Readability
- Sign Languages
- Multiliteracies and Transcultural Education
- Urban Languages in African Contexts: Toward a Multimodal Approach to Urban Languages
- Indigenous Peoples and Their Languages
- Entry Visa Denied: The Construction of Symbolic Language Borders in Educational Settings
- Linguistic Profiling and Discrimination
- From Elderspeak to Gerontolinguistics: Sociolinguistic Myths
- Language and Racialization
- Language and Sexuality
- Linguistic Landscapes
- The Internet, Language, and Virtual Interactions
- Mediatization and the Language of Journalism
- Bilingual Education
- Conclusion: Moving the Study of Language and Society into the Future
Abstract and Keywords
Urban languages have been studied in many different contexts with emphasis placed on the level of creativity that characterizes these language forms, including the discursive construction of the identity of their users. This chapter focuses on the conceptual aspects of these varieties of language in African contexts by examining the use of terms such as “urban” and “youth.” Given the strong cyclical urban-rural and rural-urban migration, as well as urban-rural-peri-urban or rural-peri-urban-urban migration associated with what the city stands for in African imagination, future research may have to focus on establishing whether these varieties are indeed limited to the city or whether they are also evident in rural settings. As part of taking the research forward, future research may need to take a poststructuralist approach that will need to be multimodal in orientation, thereby going beyond the verbal to include features such as dress, ways of walking, gestures, and music.
Busi Makoni teaches at Pennsylvania State University in the African Studies Program. Her research interests are in language and gender, language policy and planning, linguistic human rights, and feminist critical discourse analysis. Some of her most recent work has appeared in Gender and Language, International Journal of Applied Linguistics, Discourse & Communication, Feminist Studies, and Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Discourses.
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